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Tips for Selecting Capacitors Appropriate for Individual Applications

Contents
Tips for Selecting Capacitors Appropriate for Individual Applications
  1 Input Filtering Capacitors for Switching Mode Power Supplies
  2 Output Filtering Capacitors for Switching Mode Power Supplies
  3 Filtering Capacitors for Inverter Main Circuits
  4 Capacitors for Control Circuits
  5 Photoflash Capacitors
 
Tips for Selecting Capacitors Appropriate for Individual Applications
Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are used mainly for the filtering application of power supplies. Select appropriate capacitors for the specific requirements of each application, referring to the following examples for typical applications
1 Input Filtering Capacitors for Switching Mode Power Supplies
An input filtering capacitor functions to smooth 50-120 Hz waveforms that come from a rectifying circuit, the waveforms of which are superimposed with the ripples with the switching frequency from the switching stage where the capacitor supplies the electric power. Therefore, the capacitor must be capable of managing both ripple currents with each frequency. The ESR of a capacitor is frequency-dependent, so that a ripple current of different frequency produces a different thermal energy in the capacitor. For PFC power supplies or lighting ballasts, capacitors are subjected to ripple current whose frequency is several dozens of kHz to 100kHz. Therefore, to select capacitors, take their impedance characteristics into consideration.

●Recommended input filtering capacitors for SMPS
2 Output Filtering Capacitors for Switching Mode Power Supplies
In the output filtering, a capacitor must be capable of managing a ripple current with the frequency as high as around 100 kHz. Therefore, Nippon Chemi-Con provides excellent product lineups with low impedance characteristic at high frequencies, including high temperature and long-life versions, which can be chosen according to the application purpose.
 The 125˚C maximum temperature series capacitors have a shorter lifetime than the “Long Life” series of 105˚C max. temperature though the electrical characteristics are highly stable. The “wide temperature range” series has two subseries that differ by the applicable temperature range: -55 to 105˚C and -40 to 125˚C . The “Long Life” series capacitors have been designed for specializing lower impedance and also longer lifetime. Compared to the “wide temperature range” series, the Long Life series can serve longer with the lower impedance, though the maximum operating temperature is limited to 105˚C and the electrical characteristics are large in change over the temperature range.
●Recommended output filtering capacitors for SMPS
3 Filtering Capacitors for Inverter Main Circuits
These capacitors are used in a similar way to those for the input of the switching mode power supplies. Additionally, please understand the following precautions:
For the filtering circuit for 400Vac line, two capacitors of each a rated voltage 350 to 400Vdc can be used with being connected in series. In the series connection, voltages across the individual capacitors during charging depend on their individual capacitance values. After completion of the charging, the voltages come to depend on their leakage current values as the voltage distribution to the individual capacitors inversely corresponds to their leakage current values. For the voltage not to exceed the rated value after the charging is completed, balancing resistors should be connected in parallel with each capacitor. For guidance on choosing balancing resistors, please consult us.
Where capacitors connected in series are frequently charged and discharged, individual charging voltages depend on the variations in their capacitance values. Therefore, keeping the voltage balance will be difficult even if balancing resistors are employed. For servo amplifiers and other application where the voltage fluctuates frequently due to regeneration, use capacitor families that have been especially designed for intensive charge and discharge operations, or consult us for individual designs.
●Recommended capacitors for inverter main circuits

●Recommended capacitors for servo amplifiers
4 Capacitors for Control Circuits
These capacitors are relatively small in capacitance, and therefore the case size is also small. However, the smaller the case size, the shorter the lifetime of a capacitor. Moreover, if a capacitor is located near a heat source, the capacitor’ s lifetime may be shortened. Consider selecting an adequate capacitor in lifetime balancing with other capacitors.
●Recommended capacitors for control circuits
5  Photoflash Capacitors
These capacitors are specially designed so that much higher energy-volumetric efficiency can be obtained. Therefore, these capacitors are limited in application. Note that they cannot substitute filtering capacitors. Detailed specifications of these capacitors should be determined specifically for each photoflash application through discussions with a customer.
 

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